Using Containerlab with netlab¶
Containerlab is a Linux-based container orchestration system focused on creating virtual network topologies. To use it:
Install network device container images
Create lab topology file. Use
provider: clabin lab topology to select the containerlab virtualization provider.
Start the lab with netlab up
Table of Contents
We tested netlab with containerlab version 0.41.2. That’s also the version installed by the netlab install containerlab command.
Minimum supported containerlab version is 0.37.1 (2023-2-27) – that version introduced some changes to the location of generated certificate files.
If needed, use
sudo containerlab version upgrade to upgrade to the latest containerlab version.
|Virtual network device
|Cumulus VX with NVUE
|Mikrotik RouterOS 7
|Nokia SR Linux
|Nokia SR OS
Cumulus VX, FRR, and Nokia SR Linux images are automatically downloaded from Docker Hub.
Arista cEOS image has to be downloaded and installed manually.
Nokia SR OS container image (requires a license), see also vrnetlab instructions.
You can also use vrnetlab to build VM-in-container images for Cisco CSR 1000v, Nexus 9300v and IOS XR, OpenWRT, Mikrotik RouterOS, Arista vEOS, Juniper vMX and vQFX, and a few other devices.
You might have to change the default loopback address pool when using vrnetlab images. See Using vrnetlab Containers for details.
For multi-access network topologies, netlab up command automatically creates additional standard Linux bridges.
You might want to use Open vSwitch bridges instead of standard Linux bridges (OVS interferes less with layer-2 protocols). After installing OVS, set defaults.providers.clab.bridge_type to ovs-bridge, for example:
module: [ ospf ]
nodes: [ s1, s2, s3 ]
links: [ s1-s2, s2-s3 ]
Container Runtime Support¶
Containerlab supports multiple container runtimes besides the default docker. The runtime to use can be configured globally or per node, for example:
Using File Binds¶
You can use clab.binds to map container paths to host file system paths, for example:
- name: gnmic
You don’t have to worry about dots in filenames: netlab knows that the keys of the clab.binds and clab.config_templates dictionaries are filenames and does not expand them into hierarchical dictionaries.
Generating and Binding Custom Configuration Files¶
In addition to binding pre-existing files, netlab can also generate custom config files on the fly based on Jinja2 templates. For example, this is used internally to create the list of daemons for the frr container image:
netlab tries to locate the templates in the current directory, in a subdirectory with the name of the device, and within system directory
.j2 suffix is always appended to the template name.
For example, the
daemons template used in the above example could be
<netsim_moddir>/templates/provider/clab/frr/daemons.j2; the result gets mapped to
/etc/frr/daemons within the container file system.
You can use the
clab.config_templates node attribute to add your own container configuration files1, for example:
Faced with the above lab topology, netlab creates
some_daemon.j2 (the template could be either in current directory or
linux subdirectory) and maps it to
/etc/some_daemon.cf within the container file system.
Jinja2 Filters Available in Custom Configuration Files¶
The custom configuration files are generated within netlab and can therefore use standard Jinja2 filters. If you have Ansible installed as a Python package2, netlab tries to import ipaddr family of filters, making filters like ipv4, ipv6 or ipaddr available in custom configuration file templates.
Ansible developers love to restructure stuff and move it into different directories. This functionality works with two implementations of ipaddr filters (tested on Ansible 2.10 and Ansible 7.4/ Ansible Core 2.14) but might break in the future – we’re effectively playing whack-a-mole with Ansible developers.
Using Other Containerlab Node Parameters¶
Default netlab settings support these additional containerlab parameters:
clab.type to set node type (used by Nokia SR OS and Nokia SR Linux)
clab.env to set container environment (used by Arista EOS to set Ethernet interface names)
clab.ports to map container ports to host ports
clab.cmd to execute a command in a container.
String values (for example command to execute specified in clab.cmd) are put into single quotes when written into
clab.yml containerlab configuration file – make sure you’re not using single quotes in your command line.
To add other containerlab attributes to the
clab.yml configuration file, modify defaults.providers.clab.node_config_attributes settings, for example:
defaults.providers.clab.node_config_attributes: [ ports, env, user ]
Containerlab Management Network¶
containerlab creates a dedicated Docker network to connect the container management interfaces to the host TCP/IP stack. You can change the parameters of the management network in the addressing.mgmt pool:
ipv4: The IPv4 prefix used for the management network (default:
_network: The Docker network name (default:
_bridge: The name of the underlying Linux bridge (default: unspecified, created by Docker)
Deploying Linux Containers¶
The initial configuration process (netlab initial) does not rely on commands executed within Linux containers:
Interface IP addresses and static routes to in-lab default gateway are configured with ip commands executed on the Linux host but within the container network namespace.
Static default route points to the management interface.
You can therefore use any container image as a Linux node.
Using vrnetlab Containers¶
vrnetlab is an open-source project that packages network device virtual machines into containers. The architecture of the packaged container requires an internal network, and it seems that vrnetlab (or the fork used by containerlab) uses IPv4 prefix 10.0.0.0/24 on that network which clashes with the netlab loopback address pool.
If you’re experiencing connectivity problems or initial configuration failures with vrnetlab-based containers, add the following parameters to the lab configuration file to change the netlab loopback addressing pool: