Tutorials

In this tutorial we’ll build a simple 2-node network running OSPF. We’re assuming you already installed netsim-tools and all the software needed to run your labs on libvirt or Virtualbox.

For a step-by-step tutorial covering all the steps, please read A Quick Introduction to Netsim-Tools by Leo Kirchner.

For more complex tutorials, check the More Tutorials section at the end of this document.

Preparing the Network Device Images

We’ll use Arista EOS box available for download on Arista’s web site (login required). Alternatively, you could use Cumulus VX, but it’s a bit harder to work with unless you’re used to working with Linux-based network devices using FRR.

  • Download the Arista vEOS Box file. The most recent vEOS version accessible in that format seems to be vEOS-lab-4.21.14M-virtualbox.box.

  • Install the .box file with vagrant box add vEOS-lab-4.21.14M-virtualbox.box --name arista/veos

  • If you’re using libvirt, mutate the virtualbox box you’ve just installed with vagrant mutate arista/veos libvirt.

Creating Lab Topology File

In an empty directory create the lab topology file topology.yml:

---
provider: virtualbox
defaults:
  device: eos
module: [ ospf ]

nodes: [ r1, r2 ]
links:
- r1
- r2
- r1-r2

The networking lab specified in the above topology file:

  • Uses virtualbox Vagrant provider

  • Uses Arista vEOS as the default device

  • Uses OSPF as the routing protocol

  • Has two nodes (r1 and r2)

  • Has three links – a stub network connected to r1, another stub network connected to r2, and a link between r1 and r2.

Notes:

  • If you’re using libvirt, replace the provider line with provider: libvirt.

  • If you prefer using Cumulus VX, replace device: eos with device: cumulus

Starting the Lab

The easiest way to start the lab is to execute netlab up command which:

  • Creates Vagrantfile and Ansible inventory files;

  • Starts the devices with vagrant up command

  • Configures the devices with netlab initial command.

To execute individual steps in this process, follow the rest of this section, otherwise skip to connecting to network devices.

Creating Configuration Files

Create Vagrantfile, hosts.yml (Ansible inventory file) and ansible.cfg (Ansible configuration file) with netlab create command:

$ netlab create
Created provider configuration file: Vagrantfile
Created group_vars for eos
Created host_vars for r1
Created host_vars for r2
Created minimized Ansible inventory hosts.yml
Created Ansible configuration file: ansible.cfg

Start the Virtual Devices

Start the lab with vagrant up. Once all the lab devices have started, connect to individual devices with vagrant ssh or netlab connect.

$ vagrant up
Bringing machine 'r1' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
Bringing machine 'r2' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
==> r1: Importing base box 'arista/veos'...
==> r1: Matching MAC address for NAT networking...
==> r1: Setting the name of the VM: x_r1_1621787250237_83508
==> r1: Clearing any previously set network interfaces...
==> r1: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
    r1: Adapter 1: nat
    r1: Adapter 2: intnet
    r1: Adapter 3: intnet
==> r1: Forwarding ports...
    r1: 22 (guest) => 2001 (host) (adapter 1)
    r1: 80 (guest) => 8001 (host) (adapter 1)
    r1: 830 (guest) => 3001 (host) (adapter 1)
==> r1: Running 'pre-boot' VM customizations...
==> r1: Booting VM...
==> r1: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    r1: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2001
    r1: SSH username: root
    r1: SSH auth method: private key
    
... rest deleted...

Deploy Device Configurations

You’ll need a working Ansible installation for the rest of this tutorial. Please follow the instructions in Installing Ansible documentation1 or use netlab install ansible.

The Ansible inventory created by netlab create command contains enough information to configure interfaces and OSPF routing process. Here’s the inventory information for r1 (host_vars/r1/topology.yml):

# Ansible inventory created from ['lab.yml', 'package:topology-defaults.yml']
#
---
box: arista/veos
links:
- bridge: x_1
  ifindex: 1
  ifname: Ethernet1
  ipv4: 172.16.0.1/24
  linkindex: 1
  neighbors: {}
  type: stub
- ifindex: 2
  ifname: Ethernet2
  ipv4: 10.1.0.1/30
  linkindex: 3
  name: r1 -> r2
  neighbors:
    r2:
      ifname: Ethernet2
      ipv4: 10.1.0.2/30
  remote_id: 2
  remote_ifindex: 2
  type: p2p
loopback:
  ipv4: 10.0.0.1/32
mgmt:
  ifname: Management1
  ipv4: 192.168.121.101
  mac: 08-4F-A9-00-00-01
module:
- ospf

To configure the lab devices, run netlab initial command. We’ll use the dense Ansible callback to minimize the amount of detritus generated by internal Ansible playbook used by netlab initial:

$ ANSIBLE_STDOUT_CALLBACK=dense netlab initial
PLAY 1: DEPLOY DEVICE CONFIGURATION
task 3: r1 r2
task 7: r1 r2

If you want to inspect the deployed device configurations, you could use the -v (verbose) flag – the playbook would print out the device configurations before they’d be deployed – or -o flag to create configuration snippets in config directory.

Connecting to Network Devices

After installing Ansible, you could use the netlab connect command to connect to network devices2 and inspect the OSPF neighbors and IP routing table:

$ netlab connect r1
Connecting to host vagrant@127.0.0.1 via SSH using port 2001...
Last login: Sun May 23 16:42:00 2021 from 10.0.2.2
r1#show ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID     VRF      Pri State                  Dead Time   Address         Interface
10.0.0.2        default  0   FULL                   00:00:30    10.1.0.2        Ethernet2
r1#show ip route

VRF: default
Codes: C - connected, S - static, K - kernel,
       O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area, E1 - OSPF external type 1,
       E2 - OSPF external type 2, N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1,
       N2 - OSPF NSSA external type2, B I - iBGP, B E - eBGP,
       R - RIP, I L1 - IS-IS level 1, I L2 - IS-IS level 2,
       O3 - OSPFv3, A B - BGP Aggregate, A O - OSPF Summary,
       NG - Nexthop Group Static Route, V - VXLAN Control Service,
       DH - DHCP client installed default route, M - Martian,
       DP - Dynamic Policy Route, L - VRF Leaked

Gateway of last resort is not set

 C        10.0.0.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
 O        10.0.0.2/32 [110/20] via 10.1.0.2, Ethernet2
 C        10.0.2.0/24 is directly connected, Management1
 C        10.1.0.0/30 is directly connected, Ethernet2
 C        172.16.0.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet1
 O        172.16.1.0/24 [110/20] via 10.1.0.2, Ethernet2

r1#

Cleanup

Destroy the lab with netlab down or vagrant destroy -f:

$ vagrant destroy -f
==> r2: Forcing shutdown of VM...
==> r2: Destroying VM and associated drives...
==> r1: Forcing shutdown of VM...
==> r1: Destroying VM and associated drives...

More Tutorials

Configuration Module Examples

Documentation of individual configuration modules includes sample lab topology files:


1

I prefer using homebrew to install Ansible on MacOS.

2

netlab connect uses Ansible inventory to find the administrator username and password, device IP address and SSH port name.